Australia is considered in the area as the sixth largest
country with a land mass of almost 7.7 million square km,
after Russia, Canada and China. It is also the driest of
continents and flattest after Antarctica. The continent is
considered as the flattest land as it is near the middle of
a tectonic plate.
Australia is also known to have a quite dramatic landscape.
It is hot and dry.
The Eastern side of Australia has lot of grasslands which
was in the past used for cattle and sheep ranches.
Australia has also mountainous areas throughout the country,
there is for example the “Blue Mountains”, located in the
south east of the continent and got its name from the blue
haze caused from the eucalyptus trees that gave off oil
As Australia is also an island it has a lot of beautiful
beaches. Australia has in the past formed part of the Gondwanaland,
which formed part the continent called Pangaea. The
geological history is quite ancient, the oldest rock
formations is over three billion years.
More than 70% of the inhabitants of Australia live in the 10
largest cities, most of them are found on the east and south
coast and also around Perth.
Australia is considered as a legend for its deserted areas;
someone can travel from Sydney to Perth which is over 2000
miles and find no cities or towns.
In the North of Australia there are vast plains and
rainforests, in the southeast there are snowfields, fertile
land in the south, southwest, and east and in the centre the
One third of Australia lies in the tropics. More than one
fifth of the Australian land is desert, and over two third
is arid or semi-arid, which is not recommended for
settlement. The highlands, the south east of the mainland and tablelands
of Tasmania are considered as the coldest. The hottest
temperature was recorded in Queensland (53 degrees) in 1889.
Australia has no current volcanic activities; the last
eruption was at the Mount Gambier for around 1400 years ago.
As Australia is geographically apart from the rest of the
world, it has a variety of distinctive animals and plants
that are found nowhere else. More than 90% from the 22,000
species of plants in Australia exist naturally there.
Around 840 species are in
extinction, 83 have already extinct since the European
There is a domination of Eucalyptus forest on the coast of
Australia, but Eucalyptus is also found in all region of the
The largest known coral formation in the world is the Great
Barrier Reef. From 2.012 km along the east coast, this chain
of reefs forms a natural breakwater for the ships passage.
The water surrounding has a large variety of aquatic
mammals, fish as different whales’ species, around 70
species of shark, lot of them which are dangerous for human
There is also a large variety of reptile, which includes two
crocodiles’ species and over 500 lizards’ species, as the
giant goanna, the gecko and the skink.
Some 100 snakes’ species are found throughout Australia. The
well known and poisonous snakes are black snake, the
copperhead, the taipan, the tiger snake, the death adder.
Australia has also about 751 known birds’ species from the
primitive to develop as the cassowary, the emu (largest bird
in Australia relative to the Ostrich), the parrots and the
Australia is also the home of a variety of unique animals as
monotremes, an example the platypus, an aquatic mammal, the
echidna or spiny anteater.
The most native mammals of Australia are marsupials.
The most well known and common marsupials are of the famous
kangaroos, which count around 50 species, some of their
relatives are the kangaroo rat smaller than the kangaroo and
The bandicoot, the pouched mouse and the wombat are also
well known marsupials.
The phalangers are herbivorous marsupials mostly living in
trees, including the koala and the possum.
The koala bear is protected throughout Australia.